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来源:健媒体    发布时间:2017年10月21日 08:56:25    编辑:admin         

What would you say is the deadliest animal on earth—the most dangerous, brutal, destructive? The wolf? The tiger? The great white shark? Nope. The best answer is the species known as Homo sapiens—human beings.你认为世界上最致命的物种是什么——最危险,最残暴,最具毁灭性的物种?狼?老虎?大白鲨?全都不是。最正确的是被称为智人种的人类。Not only do we kill members of other species at a rate unparalleled in the history of the planet, but we do something which is singular in the animal world: we make a point of killing each other, too.人类不仅以前所未有的速度杀害其它物种,而且也自相残杀,这种所作所为在动物界中堪称独一无二。That is, this kind of behavior was thought to be singular until just a few decades ago. It was 1974 when the first hard evidence of intra-species murder was documented in animals other than man—that is, animals going out of their way to find a member of their own species and kill it without immediate provocation.直到几十年以前,这种行为仍被认为是独特的。1974年第一起据确凿的种内谋杀案件被记录在案,这次案件的凶手是动物而不是人。换而言之,动物用自己的方式寻找同类敌人,在没有直接挑衅的情况下杀掉它。The species witnessed committing these murders was the chimpanzee, a close relative to human beings. Further observation of primate behavior has discovered that not only is intra-species murder common, so are such brutalities as rape, battering of females and infanticide.那些被目睹犯下谋杀罪行的物种便是猩猩,一个人类的近亲物种。更进一步地观察灵长类动物的行为,就会发现在这个种群里内不仅种内谋杀很常见,连强奸,重伤雌性猩猩,杀婴这类暴行也时有发生。It seems that the worst traits in human behavior started developing long before human beings per se existed; as primates we have a very nasty evolutionary inheritance. Does this mean that war, crime and violence among humans is unavoidable?这似乎说明在人类开始进化很久以前,这种最糟糕的特质本就存在:作为灵长类动物,我们进化遗传了这种丑恶的特质。那么这意味着人类发起战争,犯罪还有暴力事件是不可避免的吗?It would not be fair to go that far; but the evidence of violence in those species most closely linked to our own does suggest that humanity will have to work very hard indeed at overcoming its genetic inheritance, if we are going to live in peace—or continue to live.事态还没有严重到这种地步;但这种与每个人都戚戚相关的暴力据暗示着人们,要想和平相处,继续活下去的话,就得非常努力地克自身的基因缺陷。原文译文属!201210/203337。

Its Tuesday, August 17th, Im Jeff Bakalar, and its time to get loaded.今天是8月17日周二,我是Jeff Bakalar,是时候收看今天最新的资讯了。India has joined Saudi Arabia and the ed Arab Emirates in threatening to block BlackBerry email service unless Research In Motion implements a secure monitoring service. The countrys claimed that militants and terrorists can use the secure email service to plan attacks within the country. RIM, for its part, says that its technically incapable of accessing the emails of corporate users, and actually promotes the fact as a security feature. India has stated that RIM has until the end of the month before they pull the plug on an estimated one million BlackBerry users.除非经过一个完善的安全检查,印度已经联合沙特阿拉伯阿联酋航空来禁止黑莓手机的邮件务。印度官方宣称武装恐怖分子能够通过这项电子邮件务来计划实施恐怖袭击。RIM公司,黑莓手机的制造商表示,技术上讲盗取企业用户的邮件基本是不可能实现的,黑莓的邮件务是构不成安全隐患的。印度官方估计截至到月底,印度已经有100万黑莓手机用户。Adobe has come out and said ;Weve moved on; just three months after the company ran ads in order to ease tensions with Apple over the flash platform on the web. Apple has taken a hard stance in disallowing flash to work on their devices in hopes of a worldwide adoption of HTML 5, even though flash remains quite relevant on the net.美国Adobe公司继与苹果公司争夺网络flash播放平台后表示“重新出发”以缓和与苹果公司间紧张气氛。虽然动画在网页上很常见,但为了是HTML5能应用得更为广泛,苹果公司对禁止在apple产品上播放动画持有强硬态度。Barnes amp; Noble has announced that its Nook, e-ing software will be available for the iPod Touch, iPhone, iPad and pc. The new program is easy to use and offers tons of customization including font, colour and brightness settings, best of all, the app will be free.Barnes amp; Noble(美国最大的实体书店)宣布,其新款电子书应用Nook将可以应用于iPod,iPhone,iPad,以及苹果电脑。软件将提供个性化务,包括改变字体,颜色,亮度调节,更重要的是,这款应用是免费的。In more mobile app news, Microsoft has begun outlining the first X-box live games that will be available for its Windows Phone 7 operating system when its released later this year. The list is actually pretty long and impressive, including some hit titles like Castlevania, Earthworm Jim, Guitar Hero5, Puzzle Quest 2, and Splinter Cell Conviction.更多关于手机应用的新闻。微软公司将计划开发首款应用于X-box(微软的视频游戏机 )的在线游戏,这款游戏将能够在年底发售的手机windows7系统环境下运行。开发策划书很长也很引人注目,包括热门游戏 Castlevania,Earthworm Jim,Guitar Hero5,Puzzle Quest 2和Splinter Cell Conviction。Finally, Chinas second largest mobile phone carrier, China Unicom will begin selling the iPhone 4 next month. The company has also been in talks with Apple to begin selling the iPad though no timetable on that product has been announced.最后一则消息,中国第二大移动电话运营商,中国联通下月将开始销售iPhone4。联通公司还同苹果公司商定了iPad的计划,但洽谈还未有任何进展。Those are your headlines for today. Im Jeff Bakalar for CNet.com, and you have just been loaded.这些就是今天的头条新闻。我是CNet.com的Jeff Bakalar,感谢您的收看。Hey, I am Tom Merritt, host of Cnets Top 5. You know, there are many more than 5 reasons why you might wanna watch Top 5, you can get a load of the best gadgets out there, the most popular ones, the worst downloads, top TV Robots and there is always a chance you could win fabulous prizes. Check out Cnet Top 5 at cnet.com/top 5.你好,我是Tom Merritt,欢迎收看Cnet的Top 5。收看Top 5的理由肯定不止5个,你可以了解一些小玩意儿的最新资讯,哪个最流行,哪个最差,收看这档节目你还有可能获得小礼品。欢迎登陆cnet.come观看Top 5。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201207/192399。

The Freedom of Information movement began in earnest in the 1950s. After WWII, the extent of government secrecy was questioned by the American Society of Newspaper Editors.真正意义上的信息自由运动始于20世纪50年代。二战后,政府保密的程度受到了美国报纸编辑协会的质疑。At about the same time, a young Congressman from California, John Moss, was coming to the same conclusion — discovering that a lot of government records were being held back from the public almost by default, without a thoughtful or systematic process.大约在同一年,约翰·莫斯,一位年轻的来自加利福利亚的国会议员,对此也深有同感。他发现政府几乎是约定俗成、不经考虑地把大量的文件档案与公众隔绝开来,更别提系统的程序约束了。John Moss worked on this issue for 12 of his 26 years in Congress. He eventually authored the Freedom of Information Act. It offered a compromise between those who argue for secrecy as it relates to national security, and those who argue for a citizens right to know, on a case–by–case basis. Based on the belief that individuals should know what their government is up to, The Freedom of Information Act was signed into law on July 4, 1966 — and expanded in 1974 after the Watergate scandal.在约翰·莫斯26年的国会生涯中,有12年时间致力于这个问题。最后他成为信息自由法令的作者。有些人认为,文件关系到国家安全所以应该保密,而另一些人则认为信息自由是公民的权利,这项法案让双方都做出妥协。每个公民都应该知道政府的决策,基于这样一个信念,《信息自由法案》在1966年7月4日签署成为法律,并在水门事件之后扩大了影响力。The Act allows any person the right to access information from a federal agency through a written request. Government agencies are required to disclose the documents, unless they can be lawfully withheld under the specific exemptions written into the Act. Because of his push to release government information, the FBI kept an extensive file on Congressman Moss, which was recently released ... through the Freedom of Information Act.该法案规定任何人都有权利通过书面请求的方式从联邦政府获得信息,并要求政府机构公开文件。根据写进法案的具体豁免权,有些文件可能会被依法扣留,因此不在公开范围内。由于约翰·莫斯推动了政府信息的公开,美国联邦调查局保存了大量关于斯议员的资料,这些资料最近才公开。原文译文属!201210/206093。

In todays TechBytes, good news for parents who have been experiencing iTune sticker shock. Apple is now requiring users to re-enter their passwords when making in-app purchases. Now the hope is that this will prevent kids from inadvertently buying virtual goods while playing games on their parents iPhones and iPads.欢迎收看今天的TechBytes节目,对iTune的价签瞠目结舌的父母们有福音了。现在在应用商城购买商品,苹果公司会要求再次输入密码。这么做是希望可以阻止孩子们在父母的iPhone或者iPad上玩游戏时无意购买产品。Original programming may be coming to Netflix. The movie-oriental service is reportedly in talks to acquire a TV series, starring Kevin Spacey and directed by The Social Networks David Fincher. This will be the first time a programme will be streamed on Netflix before seen anywhere else.网飞公司将提供原创影视节目。这项影视方向的务据报道是一部由凯文·史派西领衔主演,大卫·芬奇导演的电视剧。这将是电视节目首度在网络媒体,也是网飞上独家播出。And it seems like theres an app for just about everything these days while now smokers have one that can help them quit. Canadian scientists have developed Nicot which encourages users to find and crush as many virtual cigarettes as they can over a 12-week period. The app is available for in the iTune store.最近仿佛到处都是app的消息,现在更是有了一款帮助吸烟者戒烟的应用。加拿大科学家开发了一款名为Nicot的应用,这款应用鼓励用户在为期12周的疗程期间找到并销毁尽可能多的烟类品种。这款应用在iTone商城里售价5美元。Those are your TechBytes. Im Peggy Bunker.以上就是今天的TechBytes。我是Peggy Bunker。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201210/204944。

Scientists Use Ancient Shells To Learn About The Past科学家用远古贝壳了解过去If you were traveling from the ed States to Singapore, a guide book could tell you what sort of climate to expect. But if, like paleontologists and geologists, you needed to know what the weather was like in Singapore tens of millions of years ago, you’d have to consult a different source.如果你从美国到新加坡旅行,一本指南能告诉你会有什么样的天气。但是,如果你是古生物学家和地质学家,需要知道几千万年新加坡的天气是怎么样的,你得去别的原始资源找寻。By examining the chemistry of shell fossils, researchers can discover what temperatures were like in ancient climates.通过研究贝壳化石的化学物质,研究者能够知道在古气候时天气是怎样的。Oxygen provides the key to finding out about ancient temperatures. Oxygen comes in two different forms—heavy and light. By determining the ratio of the two different types of oxygen in the fossils, researchers can make an educated guess at the temperature of the environment the animals lived in.氧气是发现原始天气的关键。氧有两种不同的形式——重的和轻的。通过决定在化石中两种氧气的比例,研究者对动物生长环境做出有根据的推测。Both types of oxygen are found in carbon dioxide, which is found both in the atmosphere and in water. The amount of carbon dioxide water contains depends on the temperature of the water. Cooler water contains more carbon dioxide.两种形式的氧气都能在二氧化碳中发现,还可以在空气和水中发现。水中含有二氧化碳的量取决于水的温度。比较冷的水含有更多的二氧化碳。But as the water warms, carbon dioxide gas escapes. Carbon dioxide made of the lighter oxygen escapes at cooler temperatures, leaving more carbon dioxide made of the heavy oxygen in the water. At warmer temperatures, carbon dioxide made of heavy oxygen begins to escape, leaving less heavy oxygen in the water.但是当水热起来了,二氧化碳会消失。由轻氧构成的二氧化碳在较冷天气下会消失,剩下更多的由水中重氧组成的二氧化碳。在温暖的天气下,由重氧构成的二氧化碳开始消失,剩下不重氧在水中。Since animals living in the ocean use the carbon and oxygen that remains in the water to build their shells, the shells of animals that lived in a cool climate contain more heavy oxygen.自从在海边生存的动物使用仍然在水中的氧气和二氧化碳去建它们的贝壳,在凉爽气候下生存壳类动物蕴含更多的重氧。By grinding up the shells and determining how much of each type of oxygen they contain, researchers can learn what temperatures were like in ancient environments.通过磨碎贝壳和测试每种氧它们富含多少,研究人员能够了解到在古环境下天气是什么样的。 /201206/185933。

Exhausted, it no longer has the energy to pull itself to safety. And the killers are moving in. Game over. Although such team hunts are rarely seen, scientists believe they may be the most complex ever documented in the natural world. They were first witnessed by Captain Scott and his men when they came to explore Antarctic one hundred years ago.它已经疲惫不看,不可能再有力气把自己带到安全的地方。猎手们咄咄逼近。游戏结束。虽然这样的团队狩猎非常罕见,科学家们相信这可能是在自然世界从未有过的最复杂记录。当100年前史考特船长和他的队员第一次探索南极时曾遇到过这种情况。Journeying further south, the fragmenting ice is replaced by a permanent sheet that doesnt know even the heat of summer. It is a barrier that many creatures find impossible. It repels even powerful mink whales. They have to turn back if they cant no longer reach the air that they need to breathe.继续向南旅行,破碎的冰被取代,即使在炎热的夏天也会无人知晓。这是一个许多生物不可能发现的屏障。它甚至排斥强大鲸鱼。如果需要呼吸,它们必须回头。Under the ice, life has to be extremely specialized to survive.Few of us will ever experience this strange,mysterious world. And as yet, no one knows much about it. The crystalized surface of ice-style tights provides a home for ice fish whose bodies are full of antifreeze. The sailing of ice shelters those living below it from the violent polar weather that rages above. Little here has changed for millions of years. The cold allows animals to grow very slowly and become giants.冰层之下,这里的生命在艰难的存活。我们中很少有人会经历这个奇怪的、神秘的世界。到目前为止,还没有人了解的更多。水晶般的外表使这种生物变得无比耐寒抗冻。酷寒天气锻炼了这里的生物。这里已经改变了数百万年。寒冷的天气使动物生长非常缓慢,成为庞然大物。注:听力文本来源于普特201202/170595。

And then, in 1610, all Moors were expelled from Spain, whether they had converted to Catholicism or not.然后,在1610年,所有尔人被逐出西班牙,他们亦或者已经皈依了天主教。As so often, the victors in this epic struggle re-wrote history to suit their own militant ideology.情况往往是这样的,这场史诗般的斗争中的胜利者对于历史的重写才能符合他们自己的激进意识形态。For centuries afterwards, the whole rich history of Arab Spain was destined to be remembered as no more than the nations long journey through a dark tunnel, at the end of which shone the light of the Christian Reconquista.几个世纪之后, 阿拉伯西班牙的整个丰富历史注定被人们铭记,因为没有一个国家的长途旅行是好似穿过一个黑暗的隧道,最后被基督教的神圣光芒照亮。And the Arabs themselves were remembered as no more than villains in a great story of Christian triumph.而且阿拉伯人自己也都记得不是在伟大基督教的胜利故事中的恶棍们。Today, in festivals all over Spain, the Moors are still portrayed as pantomime villains.时至今日,在西班牙的节日中,尔人仍被描绘成童话中的坏蛋。Ive come to the small town of Quentar, just outside Granada, to watch the local Moors and Christians festival.我来到拉纳达外的小镇奎恩塔,看看当地的尔和基督教节日。201303/227870。

Science and Technolgy科技What dinosaurs ate恐龙吃什么The belly of the beast腹中发现A chance discovery from China suggests some dinosaurs lived in trees在中国的一次偶然发现暗示着有些恐龙在树上生活WHAT dinosaurs ate is, of course, a question as interesting and illuminating as what ate dinosaurs (see article).恐龙吃什么?当然,这个问题与“什么吃恐龙?”一样有趣,一样具有启发性。In the case of one particular dinosaur,Microraptor, the matter was addressed in a presentation to the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Palaeontology by Jingmai OConnor of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, in Beijing.但就“小盗龙吃什么”这一问题(见文章),北京中国科学院古脊椎动物和古人类研究所的Jingmai OConnor在古脊椎动物学会年会上发表了演说。Microraptor (see photograph) is one of many small, feathered dinosaurs found in what is now China that were alive during the Cretaceous period more than 66m years ago.小盗龙(见图),生活在距今六千六百多万年前的白垩纪,是现今中国境内发现的众多体型娇小、长有羽毛的恐龙之一。Being feathered, it and its kind were cousins to birds.这一种恐龙身着羽毛,是鸟类的近亲。The actual split between the two groups, though, had happened much earlier, during the Jurassic period (the first known bird is Archaeopteryx, from 150m years ago), and by the late Cretaceous there were many species of bird around.尽管,这两种物种早在侏罗纪时期(已知的最早鸟类是始祖鸟,生活在一亿五千万年前)就已分道扬镳,而且,到了白垩纪后期,已出现了许多种的鸟类。What Dr OConnor and her colleagues have found is the remains of one of those birds, of an as-yet-unidentified species, in the stomach of a specimen of Microraptor.OConnor士和她同事在小盗龙样本的胃中发现了那时期鸟类的残骸,但其种类还未得到鉴别。That is interesting. Discovering direct evidence of what a fossil animal ate, rather than having to infer it from details such as the shape of its teeth, is always valuable.比起根据其牙齿形状等细节来推测出结果,找出古生物吃什么的直接据是有价值的。But the finds true significance is a small detail of the preys anatomy: the third toe of its foot.但是,这个发现真正重要之处却是其骨骼的一个细微之处:它脚掌的第三个脚趾。那是非常有趣的。The size of the preys third toe is important because, among birds, long third toes are helpful for grasping branches and perching in trees.捕食者第三个脚趾的大小是很重要的,因为,对于鸟来说,长长的第三趾可以帮助其抓紧树枝,在树上栖息。Indeed, the trait is so useful for arboreal life that it is used by many avian palaeontologists to decide whether newly excavated species of fossil birds lived in trees or on the ground.的确,对于树栖生物这一特点是相当有用的,而许多鸟类古生物学家也利用这一特点来确定新挖掘出的鸟类化石是栖息在树上还是生活在地面上。And the last meal of this particular specimen of Microraptor did, indeed, have a long third toe.而小盗龙的最后一餐显然长有长长的第三个脚趾。That elongated toe suggests to Dr OConnor that Microraptor, too, was arboreal, and hints that its feathers may have helped it to move through an environment where hops, jumps and flaps between branches were a regular part of its daily activity.那细长的脚趾暗示着OConnor士小盗龙也是树栖的。在一个需在枝桠间跳跃、滑行的生活环境中,它的羽毛可能对它的日常活动有所帮助。Whether the first birds evolved from arboreal or terrestrial ancestors is a matter of lively debate among palaeontologists.关于第一只鸟是从树栖还是陆生的祖先进化而来,一直是古生物学家激烈争论的话题。A fossil formed so long after birds emerged does not, in truth, shed much light on that debate.事实上,一个在鸟类出现很久之后形成的化石并没有使得这一论战明朗化。But it does suggest feathers may have helped promote life in the trees, even for creatures that could not actually fly.但是,这的确说明对于居于树上、即使是那些根本不能飞的树栖生物来说,羽毛可能真的有助于它们的生活。 /201210/206472。