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2018年02月19日 17:29:49 | 作者:医苑频道 | 来源:新华社
After 70 years, why aren’t we better at developing flu vaccines?今年的流感疫情非常严峻。从去年秋天至今,已经有数千美国人死于流感,其中包括56名儿童。美国疾病控制与预防中心已经发布了流感预警,而现在我们才刚刚进入二月,也就是流感疫情通常会集中爆发的月份。This year’s influenza season is a serious one. Thousands of Americans — including 56 children — have died from the flu since last fall. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has labeled the outbreak an epidemic, and we’re barely into February, the month that typically brings the peak of the season.流感疫情如此严重的部分原因是,今年的流感疫苗注射效果是近十年来最弱的一次。这或许也可以解释今年的流感疫情为什么如此早地就达到流行病级别。美国疾病控制与预防中心表示,今年的流感疫苗有效率只有23%,远低于往年50%到60%的水平。Part of the problem is this year’s flu shot has been one of the least effective in a decade, and it may account for why we are seeing the flu reach epidemic levels so early this season. The current flu vaccine is only 23% effective, compared to between 50% and 60% efficacy for a typical seasonal flu vaccine, according to the CDC.流感疫苗并不是一项高新技术,早在1935年,人类就测试了第一流感疫苗。仅仅7年后,也就是1942年,美国就开始在美军基地里进行大规模的流感疫苗研究。那么经过了70多年的研究,为什么我们还没有创造出一种持续有效的流感疫苗呢?The flu vaccine isn’t a newfangled technology. The first human influenza vaccines were tested as early as 1935, and extensive flu vaccine studies were started on U.S. army bases in 1942. So, after more than 70 years of research, why aren’t we better at creating a consistently effective seasonal flu vaccine?分析流感变种Analyzing the strains每年2月,世界卫生组织都会召集全球流感专家进行研讨,以确定下一季流感疫苗所使用的病毒株。全球科学家和医生都在努力收集和分析当前流行的病毒株,希望找到那些有可能演化为新流感的病毒变种。The answer to that question begins in February of every year, when global flu experts and the World Health Organization meet as part of an annual consortium to peg the influenza strains for the following season’s flu vaccine美国疾病控制与预防中心的世卫合作中心负责人杰基o卡茨表示:“这是一个持续不断的过程。一个病毒的变种会衍生出一系列变种。它是一种持续不断的线性进化,但也是很难预测的。想获得一精确的流感疫苗,关键就在于及时获得病毒样本,这样我们才能及时分析,准备下一年的疫苗。”Scientists and doctors from around the world work diligently to collect and analyze the flu strains currently in circulation, looking to pinpoint mutations that could become ground zero for a new epidemic.一旦这些病毒株被确定,专家就会针对其中的三到四种,来研制下一年的疫苗。这些病毒株会被大量生产,然后交给葛兰素史克、诺华和赛诺菲等生产厂家来生产和销售——这个过程需要显著的提前期,才能保疫苗在10月初到达各地的医院。“It’s a constant process,” said Jackie Katz, the head of the CDC’s WHO collaborating center. “One set of mutations will build on another. It’s a constant sort of linear evolution, but it’s one that is very hard to predict. One of the key features to get an accurate vaccine is having the viruses arrive in time, so we can characterize and analyze these viruses for the coming season.”去年二月中旬开始的疫苗研制过程,也和往年没有什么差别。来自美国疾病控制与预防中心、美国食品药品监督(FDA)、美国国家卫生研究院和世界卫生组织和其他国际机构的官员在瑞士日内瓦召开会议,确定了下一年度可能在北半球流行的流感病毒株,然后将它们交给生产厂商。(为了给南半球研制流感疫苗,去年9月也召开了另一场类似的峰会。)Once those strains are identified, the experts choose three to four to include in the next season’s vaccine. Those strains are then produced and handed off to manufacturers, such as GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis and Sanofi, to produce and distribute — a process that requires significant lead time to ensure the doses reach doctor offices by early October.到了去年三月,一种流感病毒的变种突然出现了,科学家们知道它有肆虐的可能,但为时已晚。卡茨表示:“时间是我们研制流感疫苗最大的敌人。”This same process happened in mid-February last year. Officials from the CDC, Food and Drug Administration, National Institute of Health, WHO, and other international bodies, met in Geneva, Switzerland, to pinpoint the strains that would be prevalent in the Northern Hemisphere then handed those off to manufacturers. (A separate but similar summit happens for the Southern Hemisphere in September.)疫苗是如何生产的The problem came in March when a mutation showed up that scientists knew would wreak havoc, but it was too late. “Time is one of our biggest enemies for the flu vaccine,” said Katz.据葛兰素史克公司介绍,最普通的流感疫苗生产方法往往会使用鸡蛋,这个过程会持续5个月。几百万只受精的鸡蛋会被用作流感病毒的培养基,然后病毒会被收集、提纯并装进药瓶。在疫苗正式投放全国之前,生产厂家和FDA会测试它们的效能和安全性。How vaccines are made这个方法从上世纪50年代就开始采用。这是一个缓慢且冗长的过程,尤其是考虑到它面临的挑战。首先,生产过程依赖足够的受精鸡蛋。如果鸡蛋的供给不足,那就会影响免疫血清的产量。其次,有些病毒变种在鸡蛋里成长得并不好,有的还会发生意想不到的变异,从而影响疫苗的效能。The most common vaccine production method useschicken eggs. This process takes about five months, according to GlaxoSmithKline. Millions of fertilized eggs are used as a culture to grow influenza viruses, which are then harvested, purified and packaged into vials. Manufacturers and the FDA then test for potency and safety before shipping the lot releases around the country.约翰霍普金斯大学布隆伯格公共卫生学院教授安德鲁o皮克兹表示:“问题的关键在于要改变疫苗的生产方式,它是制约疫苗精确性的一个重要因素。其实,我们确定这些病毒株的速度是非常快的,尤其考虑到它对细节的要求。”This method has been in practice since the 1950s. It’s slow and tedious, especially given the challenges. Firstly, manufacturing relies on the availability of enough fertilized eggs. If egg supplies were ever compromised it would affect our ability to produce enough serum. Second, some flu strains don’t grow that well in chicken eggs and undergo undesirable mutations that affect the potency of a seasonal vaccine.从2013年1月起,一种新的疫苗生产方式开始进入市场。它的生产速度更快,不需要用鸡蛋作为培养基,而且它的效能可能会更高。这种疫苗被称作“重组蛋白疫苗”,它采用了一种流感病毒蛋白质,这种蛋白质是通过改变一种感染昆虫细胞的病毒的基因而合成的。它可以引发人体的免疫反应,生成保护性抗体。“The question is about changing the way these vaccines are made. It’s the real factor limiting the accuracy,” said Andrew Pekosz, a professor at Johns Hopkins University’s Bloomberg School of Public Health. “The speed at which we can identify these strains, especially given the level of detail, is very rapid.”FluBlok是第一也是首获得FDA认的重组蛋白疫苗。其制造商Protein Sciences公司的女发言人雷切尔o菲尔伯鲍姆指出:“生产出疫苗只需要几个星期,而不是几个月。另外它还含有三倍的抗原,能起到更好的保护效果。有了这项技术,我们基本上避免了时间上的拖延。”As of January 2013, a new vaccine production method hit the market. It’s faster, egg-free and potentially more effective. It’s called a recombinant protein vaccine and uses an influenza virus protein that’s made by genetically altering a virus that infects insect cells. The resulting protein is what triggers the immune response in humans to make protective antibodies.重组蛋白疫苗通常需要6到12周的生产时间。在发生流感大爆发的情况下,Protein Sciences只需要3到6个月的时间,就能向全美提供5000万流感疫苗。而用鸡蛋培养的疫苗要想达到这样的应急产量,则至少需要6个月的时间。“It takes only weeks versus months to produce,” said Rachel Felberbaum, a spokeswoman for Protein Sciences, the maker of FluBlok, the first and only FDA approved recombinant influenza vaccine. “It also has three times the antigens, which helps protect better. We can do that without a time lag because of the technology.”与时间赛跑The recombinant vaccine typically takes between six to 12 weeks to manufacture, and in the case of a pandemic Protein Sciences is y to provide 50 million doses to the U.S. government in as quickly as three to six months. Egg-based vaccines would require at least six months for similar emergency output.重组技术通过基因手段在成长速度更快的昆虫细胞中孵化流感蛋白质,从而可以为科学家节省更多宝贵的时间,更精确地确定下一季可能爆发的流感病毒变种。它必定能够帮助科学家更好地研制今年的疫苗。Vying for time皮克兹表示:“我们只需要花四五个星期的时间,就能信心十足地抓住即将流行的流感病毒变种的长尾巴。”Recombinant technology — which uses genetic modification to incubate the flu proteins in faster-growing insect cells — could help carve out the vital time that scientists need to more accurately target influenza strains that will circulate during the upcoming season. It certainly would have helped scientists better target this year’s vaccine.该技术有可能为我们节省宝贵的时间,但它仍是一项新技术。为了应对今年的流感季节,葛兰素史克公司生产了约2400万基于鸡蛋培养基生产的流感疫苗,在美国还有其他四家公司也在使用鸡蛋培养基技术。相比之下,Protein Sciences公司今年只推出了30万FluBlok流感疫苗。“All we need is to buy four to five weeks to have a high level confidence of catching the long tail of emerging variants,” said Pekosz.目前整个行业都在大力投资重组技术,其中也包括葛兰素史克。不过菲尔伯鲍姆表示,大多数厂商在这项技术上都落后了10到15年。Protein Sciences计划明年将FluBlok疫苗的产量提高到120万,不过对于美国总体的流感疫苗需求量来说,这还只是一个很小的比例。The technology has potential to buy that extra time, but it’s still new. For this year’s flu season, GlaxoSmithKline produced about 24 million vaccine doses using the egg-based method, and it is one of five companies producing traditional egg-based flu vaccines in the U.S. In comparison, Protein Sciences released 300,000 FluBlok doses this season.科学家的终极目标是研制一种能够治愈所有流感变种的疫苗。《财富》记者埃里卡o弗莱正在深入研究科学家们将如何在接下来的大约10年内实现这个目标。The industry as a whole is investing in this recombinant technology, including GlaxoSmithKline GSK -0.09% . However, most manufacturers are still about 10 to 15 years behind, said Felberbaum. Protein Sciences plans to scale up to 1.2 million FluBlok doses for the next flu season, though that’s still a small portion of the overall vaccine quantity needed for the U.S.直到现在,全球科学家还在认真准备今年二月的流感峰会,他们希望在会上精确地确定明年的流感变种——这可能会拯救几万人的生命。Ultimately, scientists hope for a universal vaccine — one shot that would cure all influenza strains.Fortune’s Erika Fry delved into how scientists are working toward that end goal, which remains nearly 10 years off.皮克兹表示:“在大多数年份里,我们的匹配工作都做得很好,这也是我们能够获得进展的情形之一,但这项工作需要各方齐心协力,不只是科学家,生产和监管环节也必须及时跟上才行。”(财富中文网)Until then, scientists around the world are working diligently to be prepared for this February’s influenza summit when they hope to accurately pinpoint next season’s strains — potentially saving tens of thousands of lives.译者:朴成奎“In most years, we have a pretty good match,” said Pekosz. “It’s one of those situations where we could improve, but it takes a really concerted effort. It’s not just science, but manufacturing and regulations.”审校:任文科 /201502/359899

The viscountess had decided to downsize.子爵夫人决定节俭度日。When Lady Hambleden, the former wife of the fourth Viscount Hambleden, moved from her stately manor to a cottage in a village outside London, she had little room, and even less desire, for the Aubusson carpets, Louis XV chairs, Regency girandoles and lesser English paintings that populated her estate.第四任汉布尔顿子爵(Viscount Hambleden)的前妻汉布尔顿夫人从富丽堂皇的宅邸搬到伦敦郊外的乡村小屋,屋子里地方不够,她也没什么兴趣把原来大宅里的奥布松地毯、路易十五椅子、摄政王时代烛台和那些不那么英国的油画搬过来。So, in 2013, she held a kind of “Downton Abbey” tag sale at Christie’s in London. Among the 300-plus items she put up for auction was an oil sketch that copied “Salisbury Cathedral From the Meadows,” one of the best-known works of the great 19th-century English landscape painter John Constable.于是,2013年,她在伦敦佳士得举办了一场“唐顿庄园”式的拍卖会,拍卖300多件物品,其中有一幅油画草图,模仿《洼地那边的塞利斯伯尔利教堂》(Salisbury Cathedral From the Meadows),那是19世纪伟大的英国风景画家约翰·康斯特布尔(John Constable)最著名的作品之一。“The painting was so black, so somber and a little nightmarish, with dark clouds and a ghostlike cathedral, I never considered it as important,” Lady Hambleden said in a phone interview.“这幅画太黑暗、太阴郁,让人有点害怕,画面上有深暗的云朵和鬼魅般的大教堂,我从来不觉得它有多重要,”汉布尔顿夫人在接受电话采访时说。Listed as the work of a Constable follower, it sold for just #163;3,500 (around ,200).这幅画被标记为康斯特布尔的模仿者所做,以3500英镑卖出(约合5200美元)。But the anonymous buyer, an art dealer, had a hunch. Real Constables were often painted over during the 19th century, when their rough, seemingly unfinished quality put off prospective purchasers. So the dealer had it cleaned and took it to a leading Constable expert, Anne Lyles, a former curator at Tate Britain.这位匿名买家是一个艺术商,他却产生了一个预感。在19世纪,康斯特布尔的真迹经常被涂改,因为原来画面上那种粗糙,看似未完成的特质会令可能的买家望而却步。所以这位艺术商清理了画面,把它拿给重要的康斯特布尔专家——安妮·莱尔斯(Anne Lyles),她曾是英国泰特美术馆的策展人。“When I first saw this sketch, newly cleaned, there was just something about the application of the paint, the texture in the sky and the expression of the light and shade — all looked promising,” she said recently in a phone interview.“第一眼看到这幅新近清理过的草稿,便可以看出颜料的应用,天空的质感,以及光与影的表达方式——一切看上去都很有希望,”最近,莱尔斯在接受电话采访时说。In January, the painting, now deemed a true Constable by Ms. Lyles, was sold at Sotheby’s in New York. It fetched .2 million.这幅画已被莱尔斯女士鉴定为康斯特布尔真迹,一月,这幅画在纽约苏富比拍卖行卖出,达到520万美元。At a time when the attribution of paintings can be so litigious that many experts have retreated from the field, the startling reassessment of the “Cathedral,“ and its sudden explosion in value, provides a rare window into the often imprecise, and debate-riddled, field of identifying the authorship of artworks.如今这类鉴定非常易于引起争论,因此许多专家都退出了这个领域,而这幅《教堂》以及它的突然大幅升值为人们提供了少有的机会,可以一窥艺术品作者鉴定这个充满模糊和争议的领域。The Metropolitan Museum of Art has twice changed its mind in the past four decades over whether its portrait of Philip the IV is a masterpiece by Velázquez (the current view), or a fine painting by an also-ran. Sotheby’s was sued after it sold what it had determined to be a copy of Caravaggio’s “The Cardsharps” for #163;42,000 (about ,000) in 2006, only to have a scholar later declare it was actually by the master himself.在过去的40年里,大都会艺术物馆曾经两次改变主意,无法确定一幅菲利普四世的肖像究竟出自委拉斯贵兹(Velázquez)之手,还是另一位落选者的作品(目前该馆认为它是委拉斯贵兹的作品)。一幅名为《打牌作弊者》的油画曾被认为出自卡拉瓦乔(Caravaggio)的模仿者之手,2006年,苏富比将此画以42000英镑(合83000美元)拍出,一位学者鉴定此画是卡拉瓦乔本人所做后,苏富比遭到诉讼。This time it is Christie’s that is facing questioning over whether it bungled the attribution of a painting. “We understand that there is no clear consensus of expertise on the new attribution,” the company said in a statement.这一次佳士得也面对质疑,他们是否弄错了画家。“我们理解,对于这项新鉴定,专家没有清晰的一致意见,”公司在声明中说。It then provided the name of an expert who holds a different view from Ms. Lyles. “I could see no sign of Constable’s hand in the work,” said Conal Shields, an art historian and Constable scholar.之后公司公布了一位不同意莱尔斯意见的专家的名字。“我在这幅作品中看不出康斯特布尔亲手绘制的迹象,”艺术史学家与康斯特布尔专家康诺尔·西尔德斯(Conal Shields)说。Nonetheless, some in Hambleden, an idyllic village of brick and flint cottages that was the backdrop for movies like “Chitty Chitty Bang Bang” and often fills on weekends with equestrians and shooting parties, say they feel aggrieved on behalf of the viscountess.汉布尔顿小村庄风景如画,布满砖石农舍,《飞天万能车》(Chitty Chitty Bang Bang)等影片曾在这里取景,周末常常有骑马和狩猎活动。不管怎么说,在这里,有人为子爵夫人感到愤愤不平。“Lady Hambleden is a lovely person — very gracious, friendly and kind,” said Steve Skowron, a neighbor of the viscountess, who was Countess Maria Carmela Attolico di Adelfia when she married William Herbert Smith, the fourth viscount, in 1955.“汉布尔顿女士是个好人,她慷慨、友好,善良,”子爵夫人的邻居史蒂夫·斯科隆(Steve Skowron)说。子爵夫人于1955年与第四任子爵威廉·休伯特·史密斯(William Herbert Smith)结婚的,当时是玛利亚·卡梅拉·安托里克·德·阿德尔菲亚女伯爵(Countess Maria Carmela Attolico di Adelfia)。“She’s very well liked in the village,” he said. “She has an annual Christmas party and invites everyone over. The case of the John Constable painting is a very strange one. How can Christie’s have missed it? I think the consensus of the village is that she should sue.”“村子里的人都喜欢她,”他说。“每年她都举办圣诞派对,邀请所有人参加。这幅约翰·康斯特布尔的画是件怪事。佳士得怎么会搞错?我想村子里的人都认为她应该打官司。”Yes, admits Lady Hambleden, 84, when she first learned the painting was by Constable, “I felt like a fool! I know it’s not my fault, but that was my first feeling.”是的,84岁的汉布尔顿夫人说,当她知道这幅油画是康斯特布尔的真迹时,“我觉得自己太傻了!我知道这不是我的错,但我的第一感觉就是这样的。”But she said she has no intention of suing over a work for which she had little affection and that her mother-in-law had stuffed in a cupboard for 60 years.但她说,她不想为了一幅自己不怎么喜欢的画打官司,60年前,她的婆婆把这幅画塞进了一个柜子里。“It was sold under my name,” she said, “but on behalf of my children. So it would be their decision whether or not to bring legal action.”“它是在我的名下卖掉的,不过却是代表我的孩子们。所以由他们来决定要不要采取法律行动。”Her sons did not respond to a number of messages seeking comment.本文作者多次发送信息要求她的儿子们对此作出,他们均未予以回应。In the 2006 case involving Sotheby’s and Caravaggio’s “The Cardsharps,” the reattribution also came after a scholar had the painting cleaned and restored.2006年,苏富比的卡拉瓦乔《打牌作弊者》一事中,也是画面先做了清理和复原,再由一位学者进行重新鉴定。The consignor sued, alleging negligence and breach of contract. But in January a judge ruled in Sotheby’s favor.拍卖委托者发起诉讼,称拍卖行疏忽大意,违背合同。但是一月,法官做出了有利苏富比的判决。Karen Sanig, the head of art law at Mishcon de Reya in London, said the crux of the case wasn’t whether the painting was a Caravaggio or not.伦敦Mishcon de Reya律师事务所艺术法部门的主管凯伦·萨尼格(Karen Sanig)说,此案的重点并不在于那幅油画究竟是不是卡拉瓦乔的真迹。“It all comes down to a question of whether the auction houses carried out their analysis with enough care and attention,” she said. “Which the court found they did in the circumstances.”“问题在于,拍卖行做出分析是否足够细致周到,”她说。“法庭认为在当时的情况下,他们确实做到了。”Ms. Lyles’s willingness to register an opinion on the Constable contrasts to the situation in the ed States, where scholars and artists’ foundations, like the Roy Lichtenstein Foundation, are increasingly sitting out authentication battles because of fears of being sued.莱尔斯愿意为康斯特布尔的作品发表自己的意见,这和美国当前的情况形成鲜明对比。在美国,学者和艺术家基金会(比如罗伊·利希滕斯坦基金)担心遭到控告,日益淡出对作者身份进行鉴定的争论。“If you lower the reputation of an artwork incorrectly, then you’re liable for damages,” said Ms. Sanig, referring to the legal concept of slander of title to goods. “We don’t have lawsuits involving artwork on the same basis in the U.K.”“如果你错误地降低了一件艺术品的声誉,你对物主的损失便富有责任,”萨尼格说,她是指诋毁物权的法律概念。“在英国,同样的情况下就不会有涉及艺术品的法律诉讼案。”Constable, who is known for his expressive brushwork, often done with a palette knife, and for mixing colors on the canvas, is now viewed as a precursor to Impressionism. But for decades after his death in 1837 his sketches were over-painted to make them more palatable to buyers who expected something more finished.康斯特布尔以其富于表现力的笔触闻名,经常用调色刀作画,还常常在画布上混合色,如今他被视为印象派的先驱。他于1837年去世,在他去世几十年间,他的草图经常被覆盖和修改,好让它们显得更像已经完成的画作,令买家更易接受。“He leaves bits of the primed canvas showing through a finished painting; he leaves these visible brush strokes; he doesn’t smooth out the tones of his colors so there’s an even gradation,” said Jonathan Clarkson, a senior lecturer in the history and theory of art at the Cardiff School of Art and Design and the author of a monograph on Constable. “And at the time people just thought this was sloppy practice, that it was because he couldn’t paint better rather than he was choosing to paint this way.”“在完成的油画中,他让底层的画布露出来,让笔触清晰可见,他从不把色调弄得平顺缓和,也没有渐变效果,”卡迪夫艺术与设计学院的艺术史与艺术理论高级讲师约拿森·克拉克森(Jonathan Clarkson)说,他还曾写过一篇关于康斯特布尔的专著。“当时人们觉得这只是随意的练习,觉得他没法画得更好,他们不明白他是故意这样画的。”Complicating matters: as Constable’s reputation grew, forgers and imitators picked up their pace. And one of his seven children was also an accomplished artist, whose work can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from that of his father.更麻烦的是,随着康斯特布尔的名声渐渐增长,伪造者和模仿者们也随之而来。康斯特布尔的七个儿子之中,有一位也成了成功的艺术家,他的作品有时候会被人和其父的作品混为一谈。So before Ms. Lyles would affix her name to a reattribution of the 18-inch-by-24-inch Hambleden “Salisbury Cathedral,” she wanted to show it played a role in the evolution of the final work, rather than being someone’s imitation, albeit with brilliant brushwork. She found several features that, to her, proved the link, including the striking way the light from the stormy sky falls on the Cathedral spire.所以,莱尔斯为汉布尔顿这幅18x24英寸的《塞利斯伯尔利教堂》做出重新鉴定时,她希望说明,除了精美的笔触,这幅草图还在最终作品的形成过程中起到了一定作用,并不是其他人的仿作。她发现了若干特征可以明这种联系,包括暴风雨的天空中透出的光线落在教堂尖顶上这种惊人的方式。Sotheby’s later hired her to write the catalog entry for the sale, for an undisclosed fee. “Obviously,” she said, “I’m not going to risk putting my name to something that I don’t believe in.”苏富比后来雇用她为这次拍卖撰写拍品目录介绍,润笔费数额不详。“显然,”她说,“我不会冒险为自己不相信的事情而签下自己的名字。”With her imprimatur as the bedrock evidence, the painting was put up for sale as a Constable at Sotheby’s Jan. 29 sale. The bidding soon surged past the high estimate of million and ended light years from the high estimate that Christie’s in 2013 placed on the work — ,200.她的认可被视为可靠的据,1月29日的苏富比拍卖会上,这幅画被当做康斯特布尔的真迹。拍卖迅速超过300万美元的最高估价,这和2013年佳士得为这幅画所做的最高估价可谓相去甚远——当年它的最高估价是1200美元。And even that value would have been excessive for Mr. Shields, the dissenting Constable expert: “It’s a really crass, inept painting.”持不同意见的康斯特布尔专家西尔德斯觉得,1200美元也有点太多了,“这就是一幅粗笨拙劣的画。” /201503/363525

Kennedy Town is among the few remaining districts on Hong Kong island where hole-in-the-wall noodle joints and traditional tea houses outnumber clothing stores and US coffee shops.在坚尼地城(Kennedy Town),不起眼的面店和传统茶馆要多于装店和美式咖啡馆,香港岛上这样的街区已经不多见了。The town, named after Hong Kong’s seventh British governor Arthur Edward Kennedy, was for many years inhabited by a working-class community. Low-rise apartment blocks and industrial buildings dating back to the 1950s have yet to be knocked down despite planned redevelopment.坚尼地城是以英国派驻香港的第七任总督坚尼地(Arthur Edward Kennedy)的名字命名的,多年来一直是工薪阶层的聚居区。这里的低层公寓楼和工业建筑最早建于20世纪50年代,虽然有重新开发的计划,但至今那些老建筑仍未被推倒。To the relief of many locals, few mainland Chinese tourists venture into this part of town. No high-end retail stores are here to sate their appetite for luxury goods. As the last stop on the tram line, Kennedy Town has developed far more slowly than other areas on the island.令许多当地人安心的是,还没有多少中国内地游客闯进这片区域。这里没有高端零售店,满足不了内地游客对奢侈品的欲望。作为有轨电车的终点站,坚尼地城的发展速度远远落后于香港其他片区。However, this appears to be changing. A new subway station connecting Kennedy Town to central Hong Kong has opened, while western-themed restaurants and bars are replacing local diners. Developers are determined to revitalise the area to serve a growing number of wealthier residents, which means rents and property prices will rise. The remaining working-class community is starting to shift to the New Territories north of Hong Kong island.然而,这一现状似乎正在改变。一个新地铁站已经开通,将坚尼地城与市中心连接起来。西式餐馆和酒吧正逐渐取代本地小饭馆。开发商决心要恢复这个片区的活力,以务日益增多的富裕居民,这意味着租金和楼价都会上涨。剩下的工薪阶层开始陆续搬往香港岛以北的新界。For many locals, these changes are yet another sign that Hong Kong’s local culture is eroding. At street level, there is a sense that the city is becoming less “Hong Kong” and more mainland Chinese in character and that the lines between both are blurring.在许多本地人看来,上述变化是香港本土文化日渐式微的又一迹象。从街道外观上,这座城市给人感觉正变得越来越不“香港”,越来越像中国内地,而两地间的界线在不断模糊。In Causeway Bay, a crowded district on Hong Kong island, rising rents — buoyed by an influx of mainland Chinese property buyers — have forced traditional clothing stores to shut down. Only a handful of high-margin businesses, such as luxury European retailers or pharmacies selling milk powder to mainland Chinese mums, are able to afford the rents. Louis Vuitton, the French luxury retailer, has two stores in Causeway Bay and more stores across all of Hong Kong than in London.铜锣湾是香港的一个繁华地区,由于中国内地购房者涌入抬高了这里的租金,传统装店被迫关门。只有少数高利润的商店能付得起租金,如欧洲奢侈品零售商或卖奶粉给中国内地妈妈的药店。法国奢侈品零售商路易威登(Louis Vuitton)在铜锣湾有两家门店,全香港的路易威登店比伦敦的还多。“Imagine 10 shops on one street, of which eight are watch and jewellery shops or pharmacy stores selling milk powder,” says Ho Chun Sing, a self-employed resident of Hong Kong who recently moved out of Causeway Bay in search of a quieter neighbourhood.香港自由职业者何振声(音译)说:“试想一条街上有10家店,8家都是钟表店、珠宝店,或者是卖奶粉的药店。”为了寻找一个安静的社区,他最近搬出了铜锣湾。“Do the people of Hong Kong really need that many? How do large shopping centres and entertainment complexes that cater to mainland Chinese people benefit Hong Kong residents?” What angers locals, he adds, is that the government does not seem interested in improving the lives of ordinary Hong Kong people.“难道香港人真的需要这么多这种店?大型购物中心和中心都是满足中国内地人的,香港居民怎么会受益呢?”他说,本地人感到恼火的是,香港政府对改善普通市民生活似乎并不感兴趣。Mr Ho is one of an increasing number of younger residents who believe their prospects under Chinese rule have deteriorated. Rising inequality is a key issue. Hong Kong’s property market has seen average prices more than double in the past decade, according to Centaline, a property agent.越来越多像他这样的香港年轻人相信,在中国统治下,他们的日子会越来越难过。日益严重的不平等是个关键问题。根据中原地产代理公司(Centaline)的数据,近十年来香港房地产市场平均价格已经翻了一倍以上。The city’s gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality, is up 25 per cent from the 1970s and higher than in many developed countries including Singapore. Ordinary locals are frustrated with what they view as China’s rising influence in all aspects of their lives from everyday business to politics and culture.基尼系数是一个衡量收入不平等程度的指标,香港的基尼系数从20世纪70年代以来已上升了25%,高出许多发达国家,其中包括新加坡。香港的普通市民认为,从日常事务到政治和文化,中国越来越多地影响着他们生活的方方面面,他们对此感到不满。“All decisions by the government seem oriented towards serving mainland Chinese tourists,” says Pamela Low, who moved back to Hong Kong after the handover.香港主权移交后搬回香港的Pamela Low说:“香港政府的所有决定似乎都以务中国内地游客为导向。”The frustrations of the island’s inhabitants are manifested by the increasingly common sight of a local deriding mainland Chinese visitors for behaviours such as spitting, jumping the queue or eating on the subway.有一种现象就体现出了香港市民的不满情绪,他们越来越经常嘲笑内地游客随地吐痰、插队、在地铁上吃东西等行为。The Chinese government recently introduced measures encouraging tourists to improve their etiquette when travelling abroad. Yet young Hong Kongers such as Adrian Li, who works at a law firm, remain sceptical: “The quality of mainland visitors will probably not improve in the short-run. Many Hong Kong locals would rather lose their business than have them here.”中国政府最近出台措施,劝告游客在境外旅行时注意礼仪。然而像Adrian Li这样的香港年轻人仍持怀疑态度。在律所工作的Adrian Li说:“内地游客的素质短期内大概不会提高。许多香港本地人宁愿丢掉生意,也不愿内地游客来这儿。”Mainland shoppers made up a third of Hong Kong’s retail receipts and 10 per cent of GDP in 2013, notes Capital Economics, underscoring the city’s increasingly reliance on Chinese demand.凯投宏观(Capital Economics)指出,2013年香港有三分之一的零售收入和10%的本地生产总值(GDP)都是内地消费者贡献的,凸显了这座城市日益依赖于来自中国内地的需求。Therein lies the challenge for the city. Until recently, Hong Kong served as shining example of capitalism that worked. As long as most locals benefited, it was acceptable to erect an 80-storey building beside a “wet market” selling fruit and vegetables. Hong Kongers managed to adapt.这也正是香港所面临的挑战。不久前,香港还被当做成功推行资本主义的光辉榜样。只要大多数本地人能受益,人们就可以接受将一座80层高的大楼建在卖水果蔬菜的“湿货市场”旁边。香港人设法适应了这种现实。Today’s image of the island is more complicated. It evolves but with a sense that it is leaving many locals behind.今日香港在世人心目中的形象比较复杂。它在前进,但感觉上它将许多港人甩在了后面。 /201506/380287

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