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许昌/超导无痛流产术许昌/尿道炎医院Science and technology科学技术Scientific publishing科技出版业Brought to book好书来了Academic journals face a radical shake-up学术期刊面临彻底改变IF THERE is any endeavour whose fruits should be freely available, that endeavour is surely publicly financed science.如果有人试图把成果免费公开的话,那他一定是科学资助者,Morally, taxpayers who wish to should be able to about it without further expense.确实,纳税人都希望不再花额外的钱来阅读科学著作,And science advances through cross-fertilisation between projects.并且科学的进步也是通过各个学科之间的相互促进吸收,Barriers to that exchange slow it down.而其间的交流障碍使这种进步慢了下来。There is a widesp feeling that the journal publishers who have mediated this exchange for the past century or more are becoming an impediment to it.在过去一个世纪,期刊出版商给人广泛的感觉就是他们调停了这种交流,甚至阻碍了这种交流。One of the latest converts is the British government.而最新的改变发生在英国政府身上,On July 16th it announced that, from 2013, the results of taxpayer-financed research would be available, free and online, for anyone to and redistribute.它在7月16宣布,从2013年开始,由纳税人资助的科研成果都会在网上免费公开,并且任何人都可以阅读和转发。Britains government is not alone.并不是只有英国政府这么做,On July 17th the European Union followed suit.17日欧盟也紧随其后,It proposes making research paid for by its next scientific-spending round—which runs from 2014 to 2020, and will hand out about 80 billion, or 100 billion, in grants—similarly easy to get hold of.建议下一个科研经费周期拿出800亿欧元来补贴类似易于获取资料的方法。在美国,In America, the National Institutes of Health has required open-access publishing since 2008.国家卫生研究所从2008年开始就要求开放出版业。And the Wellcome Trust, a British foundation that is the worlds second-biggest charitable source of scientific money, after the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, also insists that those who take its shilling make their work available free.仅次于比尔和梅林达盖茨基金会的英国维康信托基金是世界上第二大科研资金获取来源,也坚持—要用我的钱就必须免费公开成果。Criticism of journal publishers usually boils down to two things.而期刊出版商对此的批判常常归结为两件事,One is that their processes take months, when the internet could allow them to take days.一是他们对资料的处理要花费数月,实际上有互联网他们只需要花费数天;The other is that because each paper is like a mini-monopoly, which workers in the field have to if they are to advance their own research, there is no incentive to keep the price down.另一个原因就是由于每篇论文就像一个小型垄断,相关领域的工作者想要提升研究水平就必须得阅读那些论文,这样根本没有动机把价格降下来,The publishers thus have scientists—or, more accurately, their universities, which pay the subscriptions—in an armlock.因此出版商就把那些科学家—准确来说是那些付钱订阅期刊的大学牢牢限制住了,That, combined with the fact that the raw material is free, leads to generous returns.再加上原始材料免费这一事实,这些常常为出版商带来了巨额回报。In 2011 Elsevier, a large Dutch publisher, made a profit of 768m on revenues of 2.06 billion—a margin of 37%.在2011年,荷兰出版商爱思唯尔从20.6亿欧元的投资中获取了7.68亿欧元的回报—利润达到了37%,Indeed, Elseviers profits are thought so egregious by many people that 12,000 researchers have signed up to a boycott of the companys journals.如此高的收益被认为太过分,因此爱思唯尔遭到了12000名研究人员的联名抵制。A golden future?未来一片光明?Publishers do provide a service.出版商也确实做了一些工作,They organise peer review, in which papers are criticised anonymously by experts. And they sort the scientific sheep from the goats, by deciding what gets published, and where.他们要对论文经行同业互查,并且还要对论文进行分类和挑选,决定是否出版和在哪里出版。That gives the publishers huge power.这就给了出版商很大的权利,Since researchers, administrators and grant-awarding bodies all take note of which work has got through this filtering mechanism, the competition to publish in the best journals is intense, and the system becomes self-reinforcing, increasing the value of those journals still further.因为研究者、管理员和拨款奖励机构都在注意谁的论文通过了这个过滤机制,在最好的期刊上发表论文的竞争非常激烈,出版系统就变得更加自我强化,也推高了那些期刊的价值。But not, perhaps, for much longer.或许以后不会再这样了,Support has been swelling for open-access scientific publishing: doing it online, in a way that allows anyone to papers free of charge.持开放科学出版业的呼声越来越强烈:把研究成果放到网上,让任何人都可以免费查阅。The movement started among scientists themselves, but governments are now, as Britains announcement makes clear, paying attention and asking whether they, too, might benefit from the change.这个运动开始由科学家发起,但是现在政府也站了出来,比如英国政府的通告就很清楚,它不仅在关注此事,还询问科学家们是否可以从这个变化中受益。The British announcement followed the publication of a report by Dame Janet Finch, a sociologist at the University of Manchester, which recommends encouraging a business model adopted by one of the pioneers of open-access publishing, the Public Library of Science.报告发表之后英国政府才发出通告,这位曼彻斯特大学的社会学家建议鼓励一种商业模式,这个方法被一家开放出版业的先锋—公共科学图书馆所采纳。This organisation, a charity based in San Francisco, charges authors a fee and then makes their papers available over the internet for nothing.公共科学图书馆是一家位于旧金山的慈善组织,它会付给作者一笔费用,然后再把他们的论文在网上免费公开。For PLoS, as the charity is widely known, this works well.对于公共科学图书馆来说,它的慈善事业广为人知,并且做得很好,It has launched seven widely respected electronic journals since its foundation in 2000.并且从2000成立开始,已经出版了7大类备受推崇的电子期刊,For reasons lost in history, this is known as the gold model.虽然由于各种各样的原因,它们都淹没在历史的尘埃中,这种方式被称为 黄金模式。The NIHs approach is different.国家卫生研究所的方法不一样,It lets researchers publish in traditional journals, but on condition that, within a year, they post their papers on a free repository website called PubMed.它允许传统学术期刊发表研究人员的论文,但是有一个条件,就是在一年之内他的论文会在一家名为PubMed网站的免费知识库中公布,Journals have to agree to this, or be excluded from the process.期刊出版商必须同意这么做,要么就会被排除在该程序之外,This is known as the green model.这就被称为绿色模式。Both gold and green models involve prepublication peer review.不管是黄金模式还是绿色模式都涉及到正式出版前的同业互查问题,But a third does away with even that.但第三种就不需要这样了,Many scientists, physicists in particular, now upload drafts of their papers into public archives paid for by networks of universities for the general good.现在很多科学家都为共同利益而把他们的草稿上传到由大学运营的网络公共档案馆中,Here, manuscripts are subject to a ruthless process of open peer review, rather than the secret sort traditional publishers employ.在这里,手稿都暴露在严格的同业互查之下,而不是被传统出版商私下分类。An arXived paper may end up in a traditional journal, but that is merely to provide an imprimatur for the research team who wrote it. Its actual publication, and its value to other scientists, dates from its original arrival online.一份被arXiv化论文可能会以传统期刊的出版而结束,但这仅仅只是为研究小组提供出版许可,它的实际出版物,还有对其他科学家的价值和原始数据都可以在网上找到。The success of PLoS, and the political shift towards open access, is encouraging other new ventures, too.科学公共图书馆的成功让其把政策转向开放阅览,这也鼓励了其他新的投资者。Seeing the writing on the wall, several commercial publishers are experimenting with gold-model publishing.在看到这些不祥之兆后,一些商业出版商开始尝试以黄金模式出版,Meanwhile, later this year, a coalition of the Wellcome Trust, the Max Planck Institute and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute will publish the first edition of eLife, an open-access journal with ambitions to rival the most famous journal of the lot, Nature.与此同时,在今年晚些时候,马普研究院和霍华休斯医学研究中心将与维康信托基金会合作,出版首期eLife电子期刊,The deep pockets of these organisations mean that, for the first few years at least, this journal will not even require a publication fee.这份开放阅览的期刊有信心与它们之中最著名的《自然》竞争,那些财大气粗的组织甚至想至少在头几年不对期刊收取出版费。Much remains to be worked out.仍然还有许多要解决的东西,Some fear the loss of the traditional journals curation and verification of research.一些人担心会失去传统期刊的内容治理和调查核实,Even Sir Mark Walport, the director of the Wellcome Trust and a fierce advocate of open-access publication, worries that a system based on the green model could become fragmented.甚至维康信托基金会的主管和开放出版的坚定持者Mark Walport先生也担心基于绿色模式的系统会分崩离析,That might happen if the newly liberated papers ended up in different places rather than being consolidated in the way the NIH insists on.如果新式宽松论文政策被某些原因终结而不是如NIH所坚持走统一合并的路子,这一切就有可能发生。But research just published in BMC Medicine suggests papers in open-access journals are as widely cited as those in traditional publications.但是根据《BMC医学》最近公布的调查显示,开放阅览期刊被引用的广泛程度和传统期刊一样多。A revolution, then, has begun.所以一场革命已经开始了,Technology permits it; researchers and politicians want it.不仅技术上可行,研究人员和政客也需要。If scientific publishers are not trembling in their boots, they should be.如果传统科技图书出版商没有觉得胆战心惊的话,那现在就是时候了。 /201402/277089许昌/中山医院做包皮手术需要多少钱 许昌/中山医院做一次检查多少钱

许昌/韩式包皮手术价格许昌/哪家医院治疗梅毒比较好 Alaskas bush country阿拉斯加乡下,冰原濯濯Hunting for dividends红利何去The virtues and shortcomings of Eskimo capitalism爱斯基资本模式,优耶弊耶ALASKANS like to talk about how distant the rest of America feels. In downtown Anchorage, with its familiar fast-food restaurants and hotel chains, this line can sound a little affected. Not so in rural Alaska, the swathes of frozen tundra that the states inhabitants call the bush. In Napaskiak, a village of 400 people on the west coast of the state, it is not unusual to see a black-robed Russian Orthodox priest riding a four-wheeled motorbike with two children and a wife perched on the back.美国本土鞭长驾远是阿拉斯加人的老生常谈,这种说法要是在安克雷奇市中心却会让人有点儿摸不着头脑,因为这里快餐店林立,连锁旅馆鳞次栉比。但阿拉斯加乡下确是另一番天地,冰冻苔原层层遍布,当地人称此为灌木,在西部海岸纳帕斯杰克这一400人的村庄,时常可见俄罗斯东正教牧师黑袍素裹,四轮托扬长驱驾,而他的妻子和两个孩子坐在后座上。Rural Alaska is different politically, too. In most of the country, the more remote the location the greater hostility to the federal government. Alaskas Eskimos, by contrast, are reliable Democrats, keen on more government. One reason for this is that Washington set up an unconventional experiment in popular capitalism that attracts admiration from development economists and scorn from congressmen in almost equal measure.阿拉斯加乡下的政治也是别有风味,多数村庄地域越是偏远,对于联邦政府也越敌对,相比之下,阿拉斯加的爱斯基人则是最可靠的民主党人,对于联邦政府更加持,原因之一是华盛顿独树一帜采取大众资本主义,此举赢得了发展经济学家的青睐,但与此同时也成为了国会议员的笑柄。After the discovery of Americas biggest oilfield at Prudhoe Bay in 1968, the government needed access to land claimed by the Eskimos in order to build a pipeline, so it made them an offer. They were given 44m acres of land, 1 billion and shares in 12 regional and over 200 village corporations that were created under the deal.It was agreed that the corporations would be favoured for government contracts. These companies now provide a range of services, from running deportation facilities in Texas to providing support for operations in Afghanistan.1968年,美国最大的油田在普拉德霍湾拨云见日,当时政府需在爱斯基人的领地内建造一条输油管道,开门见山后,他们得到了4400万英亩土地,并以此建立了12所地区企业和200所乡镇企业,掌握10亿资产和股份,按要求,这些公司要承包政府的工作,如今,这些公司务范围十分广阔,从运营德克萨斯州的输送设备到为阿富汗的石油生产提供生产,不一而足。The work has been lucrative. The value of contracts awarded to native corporations rose from 508m in 2000 to 5.2 billion in 2008, according to a report from the Senate subcommittee on contracting oversight. Three of the companies—Arctic Slope, Bristol Bay and NANA—now have annual revenues in excess of 1 billion. The dividends from the shares have not turned all Eskimos into rentiers, but they provide most with enough money to pay their large heating bills.这是一项油水丰富的工作,一份参议院承包监督委员会的报告显示,这些公司的承包资产已经从2000年的5.08亿上涨到了2008年的52亿,其中3家公司的年收入已经超过了10亿,分别是北坡,巴斯托湾和北美报业联盟。虽说不是所有的爱斯基人都靠股息生活, 但这至少让大部分人都能付的起供暖费用。The companies were also charged with stimulating economic development and ameliorating social ills in Eskimo villages. Here, they have been less successful. Some of the problems faced by Eskimos, such as high suicide rates, are common in other isolated northerly places. But other ills are distressingly specific—like the prevalence of domestic violence. Alcohol is partly to blame. Booze cannot be bought or sold in Bethel, the regional hub, but there is a vibrant black market. Alcohol-related injuries are common. Bethels prison, which has exceeded its capacity, is full of hungover felons.在爱斯基村庄,这些公司在促进经济发展,缓解社会弊病方面也可圈可点,但这方面的成果并没有这般显著,虽说部分爱斯基人的问题在其他北方孤地也能找到印记如高自杀率,但有些问题却是它“独具一格”,如内部暴力行为普遍。在这方面酒精要负一部分责任,即使它在地区枢纽伯特利的交易市场上销声匿迹,却在活跃的黑市上饱受追捧,酒精导致的伤害十分普遍,伯特利的监狱里塞满了“醉”犯,已超其负荷。The smaller villages around Bethel are emptying out. Some of them only became permanent settlements when Alaskas Supreme Court ruled that the government was obliged to educate Eskimo children where they lived, rather than send them off to boarding school. When a school has fewer than ten pupils it closes, taking with it a source of employment. Another reason for the exodus is the price of petrol which, at 10 a gallon in the villages, makes heating a house through the winter and running a snowmobile expensive.在伯特利周边,很多小型村庄已是空巢一所,只有阿拉斯加最高法院强制规定爱斯基人的孩子必须在居住地就学,而不是去寄宿学校,他们才会迎来永久住民,当一所学校的学生数量不足十人,他就要倒闭,一大批就业岗位也随之流失,至此的另一原因是村庄里10美元一加仑的石油价格,冬季房屋供暖以及雪地托的成本都会因此而十分昂贵Yet rural Alaska is doing better than these developments suggest. More than 10% of its inhabitants may not have plumbing, but it is not as poor as many other parts of America. Besides, poverty feels different in a place where summers are spent fishing for wild salmon and autumn is moose-hunting season. Other indicators auger a bright future. The Yupik Eskimos, in Western Alaska, are in the midst of a baby boom: nearly 36% of the people in the area around Bethel are under 18. In the four decades following the Prudhoe Bay find, Alaskas Eskimo population doubled in size. Demographers reckon it will increase by a further 10% by the end of this decade.、但阿拉斯加乡村的发展远不止这些表象,虽说它超过10%的居民都没有管道系统,但与美国其他地区相比,他的富裕程度也是有过之无不及,况且贫穷二字在这样一个夏捕野鲑,冬逐驼鹿的地方也是披上了不同的外衣。一些其他的指标也暗示了光明的前景:阿拉斯加西部的爱斯基尤皮克人正当婴儿潮,他们在伯特利周边有将近36%的人未满18岁,在普拉德霍湾被发掘后的40年里爱斯基人的人口翻了一番,人口统计学家估计这一十年末它的人口还将增长10%。This complicates the way native corporations sp their wealth around. Many Eskimos who were born after the initial distribution of shares own none. About half of the 13 regional corporations have opened their rolls to “born-afters”, but doing this requires a vote from other shareholders that, in effect, dilutes their dividends. The migration of villagers also means that many shareholders no longer live in the places that the corporations were set up to benefit.这也解释了当地企业的分红方式,很多在股份初次分配后出生的爱斯基人都不参与分红,虽说在13所当地企业中将近一半公司的红利都已对那些后出生的人敞开大门,但这必须得其他股东的投票通过,这与取缔其红利收入无异。村庄里的人员流动也意味着很多人都不再呆在公司的始发地接受分红。The companies are facing challenges in Washington, too. Claire McCaskill, a senator from Missouri who chairs the contracting subcommittee, has criticised the way in which the law allows native corporations to fulfil contracts, some of which attract no other bidders, with subcontractors that do not employ any Eskimos. In one case a native company won a 2 billion contract to manage a satellite programme for the Department of Defence, which it promptly farmed out to Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems and General Dynamics. Companies owned by other minorities also receive preferential treatment, but the size of the contracts they can bid on is capped. This is a source of tension between black-owned businesses and their Alaskan competitors.这些公司也面临着来自华盛顿的挑战。密苏里州议员麦卡斯基尔掌控者契约下属委员会,他指责法律纵容这些公司一手遮天,有一些公司不再招标,次承包者也不再雇佣爱斯基人,例如,一家当地公司赢得了为国防部运营卫星系统的承包任务后,就立马委托给了洛克希德马丁公司,BAE系统公司和通用动力。一些其他少数民族的公司也会得到优待,但他们可承包的规模有限,这造成黑人企业和他们阿拉斯加竞争者之间关系紧张。The aim of the corporations, says Ana Hoffman, a Stanford-educated Yupik speaker who runs the Bethel Native Corporation, is to let people choose how they want to live. Some will continue to be subsistence hunters; others will choose to move away. So long as the money from the corporations makes its way back to the Eskimos, the race of their employees should not matter.伯特利本土公司运营者安娜霍夫曼从斯坦福毕业,说尤比克语,他说公司的目的就是让人们选择自己的生活方式,有些人继续捕猎,有些人选择搬离,但只要这些公司的收益仍会流入爱斯基人手中,公司的竞争便不足一提。 /201409/326418许昌/中山医院泌尿科治疗怎么样

许昌/市妇幼保健医院预约挂号 Science and technology科学技术Drug research药物研究Toxic medicine毒类药品Snake venom is being used to cure, rather than kill蛇毒用于治病,不是杀伤THERE are no poisons, only poisonous doses.Thus did Paracelsus, the greatest of the alchemists, encapsulate an important piece of medical wisdom.曾经最伟大的炼金术士帕拉塞尔苏斯创立的一条重要的医学名言如是说:没有毒药,只有毒剂。In fact, that is only half the story,然而,这只说对了一半。for many materials which are toxic at high doses, when used sparingly and directed at specific targets, are not merely harmless, but actually beneficial.很多物质量大了以后就有毒性了。当计量后专用时,不仅无害,而且有益。Plant poisons, from digitalis to curare, are routinely employed as drugs.一些植物的汁液,都可用作常规药物。And now it is the turn of animal toxins, as researchers examine venoms secreted by snakes and lizards, to see if they, too, might be turned into treatments.而现在研究人员转向研究动物的毒液―蛇和蜥蜴分泌的毒汁,检验它们是否可用来治病。Snake venom, collected from farmed reptiles, has been used to make antisera for snake bites for decades by injecting it into mammals such as sheep and horses, and collecting the antibodies thus generated.圈养的蛇可收集蛇毒。几十年来,人们一直用蛇毒制作抗血清4治疗毒蛇咬伤,还把它注射到绵羊和马这样哺乳动物体内,收取抗体。Making drugs from the venom itself, however, is a fairly new idea.虽然蛇毒制药是一个全新的概念,But that is what Stefan Hailey of the University of Delaware and his colleagues hope to do.但特拉华州大学的史蒂芬?哈利和他们同事希望如此。In a paper published recently by Toxicon, they report how a protein called eristostatin, which can be extracted from the venom of the Asian sand viper, helps peoples immune systems fight malignant melanoma.最近,他们发表了一篇名为《毒素》的论文,介绍了从亚洲沙蝰的毒液中可以提取蛇毒蛋白质,这种蛋白质可激发人类免疫系统对抗恶性肿瘤。Previous studies have shown that eristostatin stops melanoma cells colonising the liver and lungs in mice.先前的研究发现蛇毒蛋白质能阻止黑色瘤细胞5在肝脏和肺的扩散。Dr Hailey is trying to work out how this happens.哈利正解密这一过程。Eristostatins day job is to stop victims blood clotting and thus plugging up damaged blood vessels after a bite.蛇毒蛋白质的功效是人被蛇咬伤后防止血液凝固堵塞血管。By increasing blood loss, it weakens victims.受伤者失血过多,逐渐虚弱。The molecule does this by glomming onto cellular fragments called platelets that are crucial to the process of clotting, thus disabling them.抗凝分子能抑制血小板这种在血凝过程中起关键作用的细胞碎片,使其失效。Dr Hailey hopes to make use of this tendency to encourage the immune system to attack melanoma cells.哈利希望利用这种性质趋向激发免疫系统对抗黑色瘤细胞。His idea requires eristostatin to be as attracted to cancer cells as it is to platelets.他的理论需要蛇毒蛋白像抑制血小板那样吸引癌细胞。Two observations suggest it could be.两项研究结果实了其可能性。One is that eristostatin has a particular affinity for melanoma cells, which presumably have a protein on their surfaces that is similar to the one which attracts eristostatin to platelets.一是蛇毒蛋白与黑素瘤细胞有一定的亲和性,黑素瘤细胞表面可能有一种蛋白质,类似于让蛇毒蛋白吸附血小板的蛋白。The other observation is that when eristostatin is attached to a cells surface it attracts the attention of T-lymphocytes.另一项是蛇毒蛋白附于细胞表面时,可吸引T形淋巴细胞6。These are immune-system cells whose job is to kill other body cells that have been infected with viruses, or which have turned cancerous.这些免疫系统细胞能吞噬被细菌感染的细胞或是癌化细胞。If melanoma cells could, in this way, be made especially attractive to T-lymphocytes, that might clear away the tumour completely.假如能让黑素瘤细胞像这样吸引T形淋巴细胞,那么就可能完全消除肿瘤。Dr Hailey and his colleagues used a technique called atomic-force microscopy to study the interactions between melanoma cancer cells and eristostatin.哈利和其同事用原子力显微镜7技术研究黑素次瘤癌细胞与蛇毒蛋白的相互作用。This technique allows the force required to pull the two apart to be measured precisely, to see whether there is a genuine attraction—which he found that there is.这种技术可以调节原子力把两者分开进行精确测量,看看是否真的存在吸引―经他实是存在的。If eristostatin does prove an effective means to treat cancer, it will join a growing stable of medicines derived from reptile toxins.假如蛇毒蛋白真能有效地治疗癌症,就会把它归到不断扩大的蛇毒提取药类里。Tirofiban, for instance, is a modified version of another anticoagulant—in this case from the venom of the African saw-scaled viper.例如,欣维宁是从锯鳞8的毒液中提取的,是改良了的抗凝剂。It is given to people with angina, and also to those who have had heart attacks.欣维宁针对心绞痛患者以及心脏病患者。依泰德森是人工的唾液素4。Exenatide is the synthetic form of a hormone called exendin-4 that occurs naturally in the saliva of the Gila monster, a venomous North American lizard.自然状态下,存在于北美一种毒蜥―希拉毒蜥的唾液中。It works as a treatment for type-2 diabetes because it increases insulin production in those whose blood-sugar levels are high.唾液素4可用于治疗2型糖尿病10,因为它能增高高血糖患者体内的胰岛素含量。And captopril, a blood-vessel-relaxing agent widely used to treat hypertension, is based on teprotide, from Brazilian arrowhead vipers, which helps the other toxins in the venom circulate quickly, and thus reach their targets rapidly.卡托普利11―血管放松剂,广泛用于治疗高血压。它由替普罗肽组成,从巴西箭头毒蛇12提取,能加速毒液中毒素循环,迅速到达患处。The year of the snake蛇年There are other venom-based drugs in the pipeline, too.还有其它蛇毒提取药物在研发。Crotoxin, a protein from the South American rattlesnake, though not yet approved for use, may one day be employed to treat cancers.响尾蛇蛋白是从南美响尾蛇中提取的一种蛋白质,虽然还没有实临床效果,但有一天会用来治疗癌症。Crotoxin seems particularly attracted to cancer cells.响尾蛇蛋白表面看来特别能吸引癌细胞。One portion of the molecule recognises a protein on the cells membrane, and links to it.响尾蛇蛋白分子的一部分能识别细胞膜,并依附其上。The other portion damages the membrane, triggering a mechanism called apoptosis which causes the cell to kill itself.另一部分能破坏细胞膜,产生一种让细胞死亡13的机制。Celtic Biotech, based in Dublin, is running a series of tests using this molecule on cancer patients at the Georges Pompidou European Hospital in Paris.位于都柏林的凯尔特生物技术人员正进行一系列的实验,用这种分子来治疗巴黎皮蓬杜欧洲医院的癌症患者。This year, Celtic plans to try it on people with several different sorts of cancer, since the firms researchers believe it should be effective on all solid tumours.今年他们计划对患有不同种癌症的患者进行治疗,因为公司的研究人员相信治疗固体肿瘤很有效果。If those trials are successful, though, they then plan to concentrate on lung cancer, the largest market.假如成功,他们就会专攻肺癌的治疗。Perhaps the most astonishing toxin-derived drug of all, however, is hannalgesin, which is made from king-cobra venom.这是从眼镜蛇王毒素中提取,可能是蛇毒提取药中最疗效最神奇的。Kini Manjunatha of the National University of Singapore is developing this substance as a pain-relieving agent.新加坡国大的齐尼教授正把这种物质研发成镇痛剂。He claims it is between 20 and 200 times more effective than morphine.他说作用是吗啡的20到200 多倍不等。Moreover, unlike morphine, which is usually injected, hannalgesin can be taken by mouth.再者,Hannalgesin不像吗啡通过注射,可口。He is planning to run the first clinical trials at the end of 2013 or in early 2014.他计划于2013年底或2014年初进行首次临床试验。Venom, then, is proving to be a trove of useful molecules.经实毒素就是有用的分子的集合。At a time when drug companies are struggling to develop new products,让制药公司通过自然选择对原料进行验,研发新药。a novel source of raw materials that have been road-tested by natural selection, and merely need to be subverted from their original purposes rather than created afresh, must be welcome.这个新方法肯定受欢迎,因为不需要创新,而只是转换了药性。It is not turning base metals into gold, as Paracelsus and his kind once attempted.这个过程并不是像帕拉塞尔苏斯这样的术士们把贱金属转换成黄金,But as a transformation of matter, it is surely a far more valuable trick.但从物质转换的角度来讲,一定是价值连成。 /201310/261923许昌/治疗射精障碍多少钱禹州市妇幼保健院上环多少钱

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